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Gravitational haemodynamics and oedema prevention in the giraffe

661.59 KB 11 downloads


Abstract: Because it is so tall, the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, provides an important animal model for investigating adaptive mechanisms to orthostatic (gravitational) pressure changes. Previous physiological...

Author(s): Alan R. Hargens, Ronald W. Millard, Knut Pettersson & Kjell Johansen
Year: 1978
Journal: Nature
Page Numbers: 59–60
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Scene From Above: Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography and Spatial Resolving Power in the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

1.79 MB 24 downloads


Abstract: The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. As the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides...

Author(s): João Paulo Coimbra, Nathan S. Hart, Shaun P. Collin and Paul R. Manger
Year: 2013
Journal: The Journal of Comparative Neurology
Page Numbers: 2042–2057
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Scaling of the Appendicular Skeleton of the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

586.70 KB 18 downloads


Abstract: Giraffes have remarkably long and slender limb bones, but it is unknown how they grow with regard to body mass, sex, and neck length. In this study, we measured the length, mediolateral (ML) diameter,...

Author(s): Sybrand van Sittert, John Skinner and Graham Mitchell
Year: 2015
Journal: Journal of Morphology
Page Numbers: 503-516
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Is the Flow in the Giraffe’s Jugular Vein a “Free” fall?

463.33 KB 20 downloads


Abstract: There is a controversy as to whether or not the heart works against gravity in the arteries to the head in the upright position. One view is that the gravitational effects in the neck arteries are counterbalanced...

Author(s): Henry S. Badeer
Year: 1997
Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology
Page Numbers: 573-576
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Gross Anatomy of the Intestine in the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

174.06 KB 20 downloads


Abstract: We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum...

Author(s): W. Pérez, M. Lima and M. Clauss
Year: 2009
Journal: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia – Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Page Numbers: 432–435
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The structure and function of giraffe jugular vein valves

153.65 KB 115 downloads


Abstract: When a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) lowers its head to drink, blood could enter the jugular vein from the inferior vena cava or regurgitate from the jugular veins into the cranial veins. We investigated...

Author(s): Graham Mitchell, Sybrand J. van Sittert and John D. Skinner
Year: 2009
Journal: South African Journal of Wildlife Research
Page Numbers: 175-180
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Pressure profile and morphology of the arteries along the giraffe limb

409.93 KB 166 downloads


Abstract: Giraffes are the tallest animals on earth and the effects of gravity on their cardiovascular system have puzzled physiologists for centuries. The authors measured arterial and venous pressure in the foreleg...

Author(s): Kristine Hovkjær Østergaard, Mads F. Bertelsen, Emil T. Brøndum, Christian Aalkjær,  J. Michael Hasenkam,  Morten Smerup, Tobias Wang, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Ulrik Baandru
Year: 2011
Journal: Journal of Comparative Physiology B
Page Numbers: 691-698
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Orbit orientation and eye morphometrics in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

437.24 KB 29 downloads


Abstract: Giraffe are thought to have excellent vision. We measured eye size, orbit orientation and retina surface area in 27 giraffes of both sexes ranging in age from neonates to mature adults (>10 yrs), to...

Author(s): G. Mitchell, D.G. Roberts, S.J. van Sittert & J.D. Skinner
Year: 2013
Journal: African Zoology
Page Numbers: 333-339
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The calcium and phosphorus content of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer) skeletons

96.88 KB 23 downloads


Abstract: Osteophagia, variable serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentration, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, a high growth rate, and a large skeletal mass, all suggest that Ca and P requirements...

Author(s): G. Mitchell, O. L. van Schalkwyk and J. D. Skinner
Year: 2005
Journal: Journal of Zoology, London
Page Numbers: 55-61
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Carcass composition of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa

1.21 MB 61 downloads


Abstract: Culled giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa were dissected into standard cuts as far as possible and their mass was determined. Carcass composition was studied by means of buttock dissections and meat...

Author(s): A.J. Hall-martin, M. von Chevallerie, and J.D. Skinner
Year: 1977
Journal: South African Journal of Animal Science
Page Numbers: 55-64