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Biomechanics of The Giraffe Larynx and Trachea

2.95 MB 1 downloads


Abstract: Despite possession of a well developed larynx and a gregarious nature, the Giraffe is able to utter only low moans or bleats. Morphological and histological examination, together with measurements of trachea...

Author(s): D.F.N. Harrison
Year: 1980
Journal: Acta Otolaryngol
Page Numbers: 258-264
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Higher masseter muscle mass in grazing than in browsing ruminants.

340.56 KB 1 downloads


Abstract: Using cranioskeletal measurements, several studies have generated evidence that grazing ruminants have a more pronounced mastication apparatus, in terms of muscle insertion areas and protuberances, than...

Author(s): Marcus Clauss, Reinold R. Hofmann, W. Jürgen Streich, Jörns Fickel and Jürgen Hummel
Year: 2007
Journal: Oecologia
Page Numbers: 1-9
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The relationship between physical injury, body condition and stress-related hormone concentrations in freeranging giraffes

795.84 KB 0 downloads


Abstract: A physiological stress response can be triggered by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, but minimal information is available about the physiological stress response related to pain in wildlife....

Author(s): Wolf, Tanja E., Valades, Gabriela Benavides, Simelane, Phumlile, Bennett, Nigel C., and Ganswindt, Andre
Year: 2018
Journal: Wildlife Biology
Page Numbers: 1-7
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Left Ventricular Morphology of the Giraffe Heart Examined by Stereological Methods

421.98 KB 3 downloads


Abstract: The giraffe heart has a relative mass similar to other mammals, but generates twice the blood pressure to overcome the gravitational challenge of perfusing the cerebral circulation. To provide insight...

Author(s): Kristine H. Østergaard, Ulrik T. Baandrup, Tobias Wang, Mads F. Bertelsen, Johnnie B. Andersen, Morten Smerup & Jens R. Nyengaard
Year: 2013
Journal: The Anatomical Record
Page Numbers: 611-621
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A model for time-dependent flow in (giraffe jugular) veins: uniform tube properties

1.99 MB 1 downloads


Abstract: Computations are reported for a one-dimensional model of time-dependent flow in collapsible tubes representing long mammalian veins. The tubes are taken to have uniform intrinsic properties and we concentrate...

Author(s): B.S. Brook & T.J. Pedley
Year: 2002
Journal: Journal of Biomechanics
Page Numbers: 95-107
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An allometric analysis of the giraffe cardiovascular system

781.53 KB 5 downloads


Abstract: There has been co-evolution of a long neck and high blood pressure in giraffes. How the cardiovascular system (CVS) has adapted to produce a high blood pressure, and how it compares with other similar...

Author(s): G. Mitchell, J.D. Skinner
Year: 2009
Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Page Numbers: 523-529
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Fiber type composition of the plantarflexors of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal stages of development

1.35 MB 24 downloads


Abstract: A sample of fibers from deep (close to the bone) and superficial (away from the bone) regions of the plantaris (PLT) and medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscles of a neonatal, a 17-day-old...

Author(s): Roland R Roy, Scot Graham Jane A Peterson
Year: 1988
Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology
Page Numbers: 347-352
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The structure of the masseter muscle in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

550.49 KB 20 downloads


Abstract: In the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), the masseter muscle was divided into several layers. The superficial and more medial (second) tendinous sheets of the masseter muscle fused with each other at the...

Author(s): Sasaki M, Endo H, Kogiku H, Kitamura N, Yamada J, Yamamoto M, Arishima K and Hayashi Y
Year: 2001
Journal: Anatomia Histologia Embryologia
Page Numbers: 313-319
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Physiological cross-sectional area of the masticatory muscles in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

788.94 KB 16 downloads


Abstract: Numerous studies have investigated how the skeletal morphology is related to feeding behaviour (Christiansen and Adolfssen 2005; Wroe et al. 2005; Christiansen and Wroe 2007; Ellis et al. 2009; Koyabu...

Author(s): Kaoru Furuuchi, Daisuke Koyabu, Kent Mori and Hideki Endo
Year: 2013
Journal: Mammal Study
Page Numbers: 67–71
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Gaits in mammals

3.28 MB 32 downloads


Abstract: In recent years there has been a great deal of published work on movements of various mammals, in particular, studies on the bone morphology and range of movements of joints, the muscle structure and places...

Author(s): Anne Innis Dagg
Year: 1973
Journal: Mammal Review
Page Numbers: 135-154