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Natural History Miscellany Winning by a Neck: Tall Giraffes Avoid Competing with Shorter Browsers

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Abstract: With their vertically elongated body form, giraffes generally feed above the level of other browsers within the savanna browsing guild, despite having access to foliage at lower levels. They ingest more...

Author(s): Elissa Z. Cameron and Johan T. du Toit
Year: 2007
Journal: The American Naturalist
Page Numbers: 130-135
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Ontogenetic similarities between giraffe and sauropod neck osteological mobility

4.40 MB 0 downloads


Abstract: The functional morphology of sauropod dinosaur long necks has been studied extensively, with virtual approaches yielding results that are difficult to obtain with actual fossils, due to their extreme fragility...

Author(s): Daniel Vidal, Pedro Mocho, Adrian Paramo, Jose Luis Sanz, Francisco Ortega
Year: 2020
Journal: PLOS ONE
Page Numbers: 1-25
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Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks

33.34 MB 1 downloads


Abstract: The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical...

Author(s): Michael P. Taylor and Mathew J. Wedel
Year: 2013
Journal: PeerJ
Page Numbers: 1-41
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A model for time-dependent flow in (giraffe jugular) veins: uniform tube properties

1.99 MB 1 downloads


Abstract: Computations are reported for a one-dimensional model of time-dependent flow in collapsible tubes representing long mammalian veins. The tubes are taken to have uniform intrinsic properties and we concentrate...

Author(s): B.S. Brook & T.J. Pedley
Year: 2002
Journal: Journal of Biomechanics
Page Numbers: 95-107
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Understanding selection for long necks in different taxa

938.52 KB 5 downloads


Abstract: There has been recent discussion about the evolutionary pressures underlying the long necks of extant giraffes and extinct sauropod dinosaurs. Here we summarise these debates and place them in a wider...

Author(s): David M. Wilkinson and Graeme D. Ruxton
Year: 2012
Journal: Biological Reviews
Page Numbers: 616-630
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An allometric analysis of the giraffe cardiovascular system

781.53 KB 9 downloads


Abstract: There has been co-evolution of a long neck and high blood pressure in giraffes. How the cardiovascular system (CVS) has adapted to produce a high blood pressure, and how it compares with other similar...

Author(s): G. Mitchell, J.D. Skinner
Year: 2009
Journal: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Page Numbers: 523-529
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The Evolution of the Long-Necked Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis L.) – What Do We Really Know? (Part 2)

1.68 MB 8 downloads


Abstract: Introduction: The story which is commonly taught in high schools about the evolution of the long-necked giraffe by natural selection (feeding-competition-hypothesis) fails to explain, among other things,...

Author(s): Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig
Year: 2010
Journal: Internet Library
Page Numbers: 1-38
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The Evolution of the Long-Necked Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis L.) – What Do We Really Know? (Part 1)

640.90 KB 8 downloads


Abstract: In the following article the assertions of three supporters of the synthetic theory concerning the evolution of the long-necked giraffe will be discussed: the statements of Ulrich Kutschera, Richard Dawkins...

Author(s): Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig
Year: 2010
Journal: Internet Library
Page Numbers: 1-38
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The cervical anatomy of Samotherium, an intermediate-necked giraffid

1.35 MB 5 downloads


Abstract: Giraffidae are represented by many extinct species. The only two extant taxa possess diametrically contrasting cervical morphology, as the okapi is short-necked and the giraffe is exceptionally long-necked....

Author(s): Melinda Danowitz, Rebecca Domalski and Nikos Solounias
Year: 2015
Journal: Royal Society Open Science
Page Numbers: 1-17
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Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

1.03 MB 6 downloads


Abstract: Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the...

Author(s): Melinda Danowitz, Aleksandr Vasilyev, Victoria Kortlandt and Nikos Solounias
Year: 2015
Journal: Royal Society Open Science
Page Numbers: 1 - 12