Forensic species identification of elephant (Elephantidae) and giraffe (Giraffidae) tail hair using light microscopy

Author(s)Bonny C. Yates, Edgard O. Espinoza, Barry W. Baker
Year Published2010
JournalJournal of forensic science medicine and pathology
Page Numbers165-171
Size2.84 MB

Here we present methods for distinguishing tail hairs of African elephants (Loxodonta africana), Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) from forensic contexts. Such hairs are commonly used to manufacture jewelry artifacts that are often sold illegally in the international wildlife trade. Tail hairs from these three species are easily confused macroscopically, and morphological methods for distinguishing African and Asian tail hairs have not been published. We used cross section analysis and light microscopy to analyze the tail hair morphology of 18 individual African elephants, 18 Asian elephants, and 40 giraffes. We found that cross-sectional shape, pigment placement, and pigment density are useful morphological features for distinguishing the three species. These observations provide wildlife forensic scientists with an important analytical tool for enforcing legislation and international treaties regulating the trade in elephant parts.

Keywords: Loxodonta africana, Elephas maximus, giraffa camelopardalis, Hair identification, forensic mammalogy, wildlife trade, light microscopy
Authors: Bonny C. Yates, Edgard O. Espinoza, Barry W. Baker
Journal: Journal of forensic science medicine and pathology

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